Written by: Jesse Stoops, Dr. Amit Patra and Geert  Van de Mierop
Endotoxins are potentially toxic compounds from bacterial origin. Once absorbed, endotoxins induce an inflammatory response, thus wasting energy and nutrients meant for growth and production. The most well-known endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are a component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. In poultry, the gastrointestinal tract is the most important source of endotoxins and the main risk site where endotoxins can be transferred from the lumen into the bloodstream.

Dr. Arun C Mazumder, Dr. Venket M Shelke, Dr. Partha P Das and Dr. R Chanthirasekaran, Kemin Industries South Asia Pvt. Ltd.     
Intestinal health is extremely essential for economically viable broiler production in intensive rearing system. Due to overcrowding, unconventional feed raw materials, high stress, and excessive usage of antibiotics, gut health of broilers is compromised in South Asian countries. Due to less focus on farm management and environmental support, coccidiosis and dysbacteriosis are common in commercial poultry. Although with balanced and optimal nutrition supply to birds, necrotic enteritis (NE) is responsible for nearly USD 6 billion losses to world poultry industry annually.

Md. Shahidullah:Bangladesh soil and climatic conditions favor agricultural production. Amazingly, Bangladesh stands globally 3rd in vegetable production, 7th in Mango production, 8th in potato and guava production and 4th in rice production. Though the country has massive potential in agriculture product export, the country could not harvest the full potential due to a lack of institutional efficiency and proper focus in exportable commercial agriculture.

by QU Dongyu, Director-General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Over the past two years, COVID-19 has presented many challenges to global food security. Today, what is happening in Russia and Ukraine adds another significant challenge. Russia and Ukraine play a substantial role in the global food production and supply. Russia is the world’s largest exporter of wheat, and Ukraine is the fifth largest. Together, they provide 19% of the world’s barley supply, 14% of wheat, and 4% of maize, making up more than one-third of global cereal exports. They are also lead suppliers of rapeseed and account for 52% of the world’s sunflower oil export market. The global fertilizer supply is also highly concentrated, with Russia as the lead producer.

Dr. Jagot Chand Malaker:The People's Republic of the Sudan is the largest country in Africa. The history of the Sudan, "Land of the Blacks," has been predominantly one of invasion and conquest. Sudan is a country located in Northern Africa bordering the Red Sea. Neighboring countries include Central African Republic, Chad, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Libya, and South Sudan. The geography of Sudan is generally flat with mountains in the east and west and annual flooding in the south due to the Nile River system.

কৃষিবিদ ড. মো. হুমায়ুন কবীর: দেশে এখন বোরো মৌসুম চলছে। এ মৌসুমটি বাংলাদেশের কৃষির ক্ষেত্রে অনেক গুরুত্বপূর্ণ। সারাদেশে যে পরিমাণ বোরো ধান উৎপাদিত হয় তার সিংহভাগ উৎপাদিত হয় হাওরাঞ্চলে। অর্থাৎ পরিসংখ্যান বলে দেশের বোরো উৎপাদনের প্রায় একপঞ্চমাংশ হাওরাঞ্চলে উৎপাদিত হয়। সম্প্রতি হাওর নিয়ে বেশ আলোচনা উঠে এসেছে এর প্রাকৃতিক সৌন্দর্য সম্পর্কিত বিষয়কে ঘিরে। সেখানকার সাবমারজিবল ও অলওয়েদার খ্যাত নবনির্মিত রাস্তা-ঘাট পর্যটকদের দৃষ্টি আকর্ষণ করতে সমর্থ হয়েছে। কাজেই হাওর নিয়ে এখন ভ্রমণ পিপাসুদের আগ্রহের অন্ত নেই। আর হাওরের একমাত্র ফসল বোরোধান হওয়ায় এর অর্থনৈতিক গুরুত্বও অনেক। একদিকে অর্থনৈতিকভাবে গুরুত্বপূর্ণ ও অন্যদিকে প্রাকৃতিক সৌন্দয্যমন্ডিত হওয়ায় দিন দিনই হাওরের গুরুত্ব বেড়ে চলেছে। আর সেকারণেই বিষয়টি সামনে নিয়ে আলোচনার অবকাশ রয়েছে।